Milton’s Dangerous Game

[Obligatory disavowal of any implicit claim to be saying something original about Milton.]

In the wake of the #CancelColbert saga, I’ve been thinking a lot about the attempt to “subvert from within” — not just Colbert’s method of subverting the right by portraying an (only slightly) exaggerated right-winger, but things like Watchmen or Game of Thrones that seem to want to expose the ugliness in their respective genres by amping it up a hundredfold. As I discussed with Gerry Canavan in a long-lost Twitter conversation, it doesn’t seem as though this strategy ever actually works. Right-wingers can happily watch Colbert, and audiences receive the “subversive” extreme version of a given genre as a particularly badass example of that genre. Even if it does sometimes achieve the desired end, adopting such a sophisticated, roundabout strategy is surely a dangerous game.

As I finish up Paradise Lost in my devil class, it seems to me that Milton is engaged in a similar dangerous game. He doesn’t merely want to join the epic tradition, with all the one-upsmanship that has always implied — he wants to destroy it from within, rendering the traditional epic impossible. In this view, the fact that the devil is the hero of the epic in traditional terms is not some scandalous secret, but rather the whole point: the heroes of traditional epics were wicked men, and the kinds of activities that were lauded in the epics (war, deception, etc.) are evil. Hence the devil does all of that, taking on the role of proud Achilles, crafty Odysseus, etc., and all of his actions are portrayed as being nihilistic and pointless. The hope is that Paradise Lost will break the spell of the traditional epic and highlight how much more amazing and meaningful the Christian narrative of redemption is.

Hence Milton was not secretly on the devil’s side — only his unshakeable faith could allow him to pursue this strategy so naively. Only a committed Christian could be so tone-deaf to how bad God comes across and expect proto-modern audiences to prefer God just because he’s God. As with other subversive meta-commentaries on a genre, the only person who would receive Milton’s critique as intended is someone who doesn’t need the critique. For everyone else, the extreme epic poem where the devil himself is the hero appears to be a particularly badass epic poem.

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8 Responses to “Milton’s Dangerous Game”

  1. Eric Says:

    For William Blake, Milton was of the devil’s party simply because he was a representative of the imagination against the oppressive forces of Puritanism. He even wrote an epic
    in which Milton is a messianic figure redeeming the modern world as a representative of artistic creativity. In the Book of Urizen it is the fall of the imagination that is the true fall of man.

  2. Adam Kotsko Says:

    I’m sure Milton would have been horrified.

  3. Matt Frost Says:

    I still lean a bit in the direction of Satan as Oliver Cromwell. It’s a fun theory. Though I’m not really sure, anymore, which direction Milton intends that to go, if it were the case.

  4. Adam Kotsko Says:

    It’s a fun theory in a gossipy way, but I think it creates more interpretative problems than it solves — in fact, it amounts to telling us that Milton’s stance toward Satan may be ambivalent, which we already know simply from reading the poem.

  5. anony Says:

    I wonder if satire as a tool to expose these problems doesn’t work as well in our culture right now.

  6. Adam Kotsko Says:

    I too feel like satire is probably tapped out for now.

  7. Matt Frost Says:

    I suppose you are doing a class on the devil; I’m less interested in the figure of Satan/Cromwell, and more in the figure of God in connection with the monarchy. He is, after all, justifying the ways of God. I like that ambivalence better.

  8. Mark William Westmoreland Says:

    There’s also Mary Shelley’s role reversal in _Frankenstein_, in which she references _Paradise Lost_ several times.

    God=Victor Frankenstein / Adam=Creature

    In the end, Victor has dehumanized himself into a Satanic figure in so far as his quest for being something greater-than-human leads him to be a great adversary of humankind. Certainly the Creature is vicious or evil, but this viciousness is due to Victor’s failure at being a God/parent for the “new species.” Push this far enough and we end with God=Satan=humankind (when it thinks its a special creature in the world).


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